Christian theology is at odds with itself when it comes to the natural world. On the one hand, it promotes a deep-seated aversion to nature, which is said to be corrupted by sin. Joseph Campbell makes this point clear in The Power of Myth, his famed series of interviews with Bill Moyers, noting that “it’s in the biblical tradition, all the way, in Christianity and Islam as well. This business of not being with nature, and we speak with a sort of derogation of the ‘nature religions.’ You see, with that fall in the garden, nature was regarded as corrupt. There’s a myth for you that corrupts the whole world for us. And every spontaneous act is sinful, because nature is corrupt and has to be corrected, must not be yielded to.” The contempt for nature, including the natural functions of the human body, permeates the cannon of Christian myth and has done much to condition western attitudes toward the environment.
On the other hand, Christianity teaches that human beings have a responsibility to care for the earth. The bounty of nature is figured as a trust, with humanity acting as both trustee and beneficiary. The theology of environmental stewardship has received renewed attention following Pope Francis’s second encyclical, Laudato si, a document that urges environmental protection as a Christian duty. Francis summarized the Christian position vis-à-vis environmental stewardship in his 2014 address to the European Parliament: “Each of us has a personal responsibility to care for creation, this precious gift which God has entrusted to us. This means, on the one hand, that nature is at our disposal, to enjoy and use properly. Yet it also means that we are not its masters. Stewards, but not masters. We need to love and respect nature, but instead we are often guided by the pride of dominating, possessing, manipulating, exploiting.”
The contradictions between these two positions seem intractable. How are we meant to reconcile the idea of nature as a gift with the belief that nature is “fallen” and corrupt? It’s worth remembering that the myth of the fall imagines Eden as containing within itself the source of sin, and thus also our own deaths, just as it shames the natural condition of the human body. Much loathing of ourselves and our environment grows from this root. And yet there is indeed a Christian imperative to care for what Pope Francis, quoting his namesake Saint Francis of Assisi, identifies as “our Sister, Mother Earth, who sustains and governs us, and who produces various fruit with coloured flowers and herbs.”