Considering the extent to which education, or the lack thereof, impacts the central characters in Arundhati Roy’s novel The God of Small Things, it is surprising that the novel contains so little information about twin sisters Rahel’s and Estha’s educations. Much of the story is, after all, set during the twins’ school years, and their closest male relatives are both educated members of the middle-class: their grandfather Pappachi was a noted entomologist, and their Uncle Chacko was educated at Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar. Roy does tell us that Rahel and Estha attended school, and that Rahel spent time at the Nazareth Convent before being expelled for “decorating dung and slamming into seniors” (152), but the detailed descriptions that characterize so many of the novel’s other passages are almost entirely absent from the few pages that refer to the twins’ formal education. When Roy does eventually settle into a description of their schooling, or rather a description of their primary school notebooks—referred to throughout the novel as Wisdom Exercise Notebooks—she places her description in direct relation to the physical and economic hardships that led to their mother Ammu’s untimely passing, the cause of which is not entirely unrelated to education. In fact, it can be argued that Ammu’s death comes as a result of her limited education, a limitation imposed by her father Pappachi’s desire that she remain subject to a patriarchal, class-based social structure. By associating the Wisdom Exercise Notebooks with the tragic story of Ammu’s decline, and by mixing the language of education with that of labor and exchange, Roy gestures toward how educational institutions and the social privileges they promise can be oppressive, exclusionary forces for those denied access to their benefits, particularly — and especially in the context of Roy’s larger oeuvre — women, the poor, Dalits, and Adivasis.
Roy ephasizes the relationship between education and patriarchal, class-based social norms throughout The God of Small Things, though she sometimes does so indirectly. For example, she introduces Rahel’s and Estha’s educational backgrounds by way of the Wisdom Exercise Notebooks, a collection of school-age notes long abandoned at the twins’ childhood home in Ayemenem. Although Roy uses the Wisdom Exercise Notebooks as a narrative device to trigger Rahel’s memory of her mother’s death, the way she introduces the device suggests that an implicit class consciousness pervaded her primary school education. For example, having returned to her home in Ayemenem, Rahel discovers her old workbooks on a shelf behind her grandfather’s set of expensive, leather-bound entomology texts, The Insect Wealth of India. Her grandfather’s books are a prized possession, for they signal the family’s status in postcolonial India’s hierarchical social milieu. It’s no coincidence that The Insect Wealth of India is owned by a family that considers itself to be representative of the human wealth of India, for Pappachi’s education and the family’s wealth are mutually reinforcing conditions. This connection between wealth and education is further emphasized by the physical proximity of Pappachi’s leather-bound texts to the twins’ childhood notes: both are archived in Pappachi’s study, and together they work to chronicle and confirm not only the family’s commitment to education, but also its ambitious upward economic mobility and the enhanced social standing it guarantees. The placement of the Wisdom Exercise Notebooks alongside The Insect Wealth of India seems to indicate a natural progression from basic to advanced knowledge, and ultimately to an increased measure of wealth, social standing, and political power.
Yet despite the class privilege they indicate, Pappachi’s handsome edition of The Insect Wealth of India and the twins’ Wisdom Exercise Notebooks are, by the time that Rahel rediscovers them, in states of general disrepair. The binding of Pappachi’s entomology texts “had lifted off each book and buckled like corrugated asbestos. Silverfish tunneled through the pages, burrowing arbitrarily from species to species, turning organized information into yellow lace,” and the twins’ notebooks are “tattered” and rubbed thin with spit (149). Roy’s descriptions of these books not only parallel the disintegration of life in the Ayemenem house, but they also mirror the process by which Ammu deteriorates from a freshly educated school-aged girl to a worn and dying middle-aged woman. While education and wealth accrue to men like Pappachi and Chacko, women like Ammu must cut their educations short and submit to a socioeconomic system that commodifies their bodies as objects of exchange between men. For example, Roy writes:
“Ammu finished her schooling the same year that her father retired from his job in Delhi and moved to Ayemenem. Pappachi insisted that a college education was an unnecessary expense for a girl, so Ammu had no choice but to leave Delhi and move with them. There was very little for a young girl to do in Ayemenem other than wait for marriage proposals while she helped her mother with the housework.” (38)
Pappachi’s refusal to allow Ammu to continue her education is typical of his larger attitude toward women in general. For example, in a separate incident, Roy describes how Pappachi “would sit on the verandah and sew buttons that weren’t missing onto his shirts, to create the impression that Mammachi [who runs her own business] neglected him. To some small degree he did succeed in further corroding Ayemenem’s view of working wives” (47). Although his attitude toward Ammu’s and Mammachi’s value is rigid and destructive, it reflects the extent to which the family functions as an economic unit. Pappachi expects the women in his family to labor at domestic tasks so that he and his son can labor outside of the home; or, to be more accurate in regards to Ammu, Pappachi expects the women in his family to labor at domestic tasks until they can be exchanged through marriage with members of equal or higher classes, thus solidifying and protecting his social position.
When Ammu does eventually marry, she does so without allowing Pappachi to arrange the union, thus depriving him of his assumed right to exchange her — an insult that he and her mother Mammachi never forgive. Yet at the same time, she remains a commodity, one that her new husband can trade in exchange for both economic and educational benefits. For example, when attempting to convince her to trade sexual favors with his boss, Ammu’s husband makes a series of appeals that bring sex, economics, and education into conversation with one another: “Mr. Hollick had proposed something, he told Ammu, that he needed to discuss with her. He began a little diffidently, avoiding her gaze, but he gathered courage as he went along. Viewed practically, in the long run it was a proposition that would benefit both of them, he said. In fact all of them, if they considered the children’s education” (39). Although the matter under discussion is intensely intimate and personal, the language of practicality, propositions, and benefits is overtly commercial, and while Ammu’s husband’s immediate concern is with saving his job, he attempts to convince her by highlighting the long-term benefits of education. Roy tells us that Ammu’s husband “hadn’t been to college,” and his family fortune seems to be in decline; whereas his family “were once-wealthy zamindars,” he has been reduced to working as an assistant manager, a position that is threatened by the growing number of “complaints […] received from the labor as well as from the other assistant managers” (41). Recognizing that a good education can bestow upon a family valuable social capital, Ammu’s husband presents the children’s education as a solution to his family’s ongoing decline. That is, by bringing education to bear on his children’s commercial prospects— an education that will be purchased with his wife’s body— he hopes to strengthen and maintain his position within the bourgeois economic/social order.
This debased approach to education may seem at odds with the “wisdom” that Rahel and Estha are meant to obtain by writing in their Wisdom Exercise Notebooks, but a closer look at the children’s entries shows their learning to be oriented toward the same sorts of social and economic norms, especially as they relate to sexual and material exchange. For example, the first piece of “labored” writing Rahel reviews is a short summary of Odysseus’s return to Ithaca (149). In the entry, Estha writes: “Pen Lope said that the man who can stoot through the twelve rings can mary me. and everyone failed. and ulysses came to the palace dressed like a beggar and asked if he could try. the men all laughed at him and said if we cant do it you cant. ulysses son spopped them and said let himtry and he took the bow and shot right through the twelve rings” (150). This simple summary of a well-known literary scene reveals the sorts of values young Estha internalizes through her education— values of competition, patriarchy, and class privilege. The suitors do not compete not for Penelope’s love, but rather for her wealth, which they voraciously consume throughout the narrative. And when Odysseus appears in the guise of a beggar, the suitors automatically disregard his right to compete. This emphasis on wealth and social standing is carried over into Estha’s third entry, in which he recalls exchanging gifts and eating a large meal in honor of his mother’s birthday. Although his account is full of tenderness toward his mother, he focuses the bulk of his attention on the ritual exchange of material goods. At the conclusion of this particular note, Estha writes: “Then in the morning we had new cloths from Ammu as a back-present Rahel was a maharani and I was Little Nehru” (151). By imaginatively elevating himself and his sister to positions of royalty, Estha articulates his desire to take his place alongside the likes of Odysseus and Penelope. The Wisdom Exercise Notebooks thus serve their purpose: they teach the “wisdom” of an ideological order based on material exchange, including the exchange of marriage.
While these examples may gesture towards young Estha’s class ambitions, it is important to note that his entries in the Wisdom Exercise Notebooks also reveal an underlying anxiety regarding his family’s vulnerability within the social heirarchy. For example, his second entry, titled “Safety First,” provides instructions for avoiding accidents. Estha writes: “We should always walk on the pavement. If you go on the pavement there is no traffic to cause accidnts, but on the main road there is so much dangerous traffic that they can easily knock you down and make you senseless or a cripple. If you break your head or back-bone you will be very unfortunate” (150). The misfortune here is economic as well as physical, for the catastrophically injured are deprived of their most basic means of production — a healthy body. Estha makes the connection between physical and economic misfortune explicit when he writes, “The job of a driver is very fatle His famly should be very angshios because the driver could easily be dead” (150). His insistence on reducing “the driver” to his occupation, even when discussing him in relation to his family, echoes his earlier anxiety concerning catastrophic accidents. If the driver is killed, his family does not only lose a father, husband, or brother, but also a laborer and producer of wealth. The reverse of Pappachi’s attitude toward women can be observed in Estha’s understanding of men’s social role: whereas Pappachi reduces women to wives and mothers, Estha’s childhood notes reveal a young mind conditioned to see men as the family’s central economic engine, and thus the central economic engine of society as a whole. Taken together, these passages reveal the extent to which Estha’s childhood thoughts were shot through with both class ambitions and anxieties, and they serve as a record within the narrative of how education disciplines young minds into ideological thinking.
The anxiety Estha expresses in his Wisdom Exercise Notebook regarding the adverse economic consequences of physical disability is ultimately borne out in Ammu’s debilitating illness. Immediately following her description of Rahel’s experience reading Estha’s notebook, Roy writes, “Ammu had lost the latest of her succession of jobs — as a receptionist in a cheap hotel — because she had been ill and had missed too many days of work. The hotel couldn’t afford that, they told her. They needed a healthier receptionist” (152). The extent of her sickness is apparent during her final visit with Rahel. Roy explains, “Each breath she took was like a war won against the steely fist that was trying to squeeze the air from her lungs. Rahel watched her mother breathe. Each time she inhaled, the hollows near her collarbones grew steep and filled with shadows” (152). Her appearance has become haggard and she repeatedly coughs up wads of phlegm. Interestingly, Ammu uses her phlegm to educate Rahel: “‘You must always check it,’ she whispered hoarsely, as though phlegm was an Arithmetic answer sheet that had to be revised before it was handed in” (Roy 153). Not only does this pathetic gesture resonate with the educational concerns raised by the Wisdom Exercise Notebooks, but it also illustrates the extent to which Ammu has been debased by her refusal to operate within the bounds of the traditional family economy: the once young woman whose father refused to send her to college is reduced to calculating the ripeness of phlegm.
It is ultimately as a result of stepping outside of the family economy — the economy whereby women remain uneducated domestic laborers— that Ammu enters a fatal economic and physical decline. Unlike Pappachi and Chacko, who combine education and wealth in order to maintain their position in the middle class, Ammu’s lack of formal education and refusal to submit to patriarchal norms force her out of the middle class and into a condition of economic and physical peril. In one of her final conversations with Rahel, she fantasizes about starting a school or working for the United Nations so that she and her family can all “live in the Hague with a Dutch ayah to look after them” (152). But her lack of education and experience in the professional world exposes these notions as unobtainable, naïve dreams. Because she is an uneducated, divorced woman, Ammu’s options are limited to low-wage secretarial jobs and living in grimy hotel rooms. In one of the novel’s most ironic passages, Roy writes, “Choosing between a career in Education and a UN job wasn’t easy, she said — but the thing to remember was that the very fact that she had a choice was a great privilege” (152). The truth is that no such choice exists for Ammu, especially at this stage in the novel, and it’s worth considering whether she ever enjoyed such a privilege at all. Indeed, all of her life’s choices have been circumscribed by the patriarchal norms that pervade her society, norms that work tirelessly to debase women’s potential by limiting them to marriage and domestic labor.
Rahel seems fully attuned to Ammu’s plight, yet her childhood reaction to her mother’s misfortune shows a deep-seated disgust with what the life she has chosen. For example, when Ammu leaves Rahel for the last time, Roy tells us that Rahel simply “went on with her fish. She thought of the phlegm and nearly retched. She hated her mother then. Hated her” (153). Rather than garnishing sympathy from her daughter, Ammu’s sickness provokes repulsion and disdain. And when Ammu finally dies and is taken to be cremated, Rahel’s reaction remains just as cold. Roy writes:
“Nobody except beggars, derelicts and the police-custody dead were cremated there. People who died with nobody to lie at the back of them and talk to them. When Ammu’s turn came, Chacko held Rahel’s hand tightly. She didn’t want her hand held. She used the slickness of crematorium sweat to slither out of his grip. No one else from the family was there […] The door of the furnace clanged shut. There were no tears.” (155)
The ordeal is concluded when Ammu’s remains are packaged together in a little clay pot and surrendered to Chacko and Rahel in exchange for “Receipt No. Q 498637” (155). Like the description of Pappachi’s “mounted butterflies and moths [that] had disintegrated into small heaps of iridescent dust that powdered the bottom of their glass display cases, leaving the pins that had impaled them naked,” a description that Roy uses to introduce the Wisdom Exercise Notebooks, Ammu’s death exposes the mechanisms by which patriarchal socioeconomic norms are maintained (148). She has passed through the fire of misogyny and class hatred and has emerged burnt to ash, her identity reduced to the numbers on a receipt. With this image in mind, the novel’s message regarding the seemingly noble institutions of higher education and the nuclear family is grim, for it is clear that they are part of the larger social forces that attempt to construct and maintain a clearly delineated class hierarchy, in part through the subordination and exchange of women’s bodies.